How many prenuptial agreements have language in them that the parties are entering into the agreement free from duress, coercion, undue influence, etc? The answer is all of them. Some even ask people to waive fraud – how you can do that I don’t know because if you knew you were being defrauded, you probably wouldn’t
Is prenuptial agreement reform coming to New Jersey? It appears to be the case.
Prenuptial Agreements are meant to fix parties rights and responsibilities in advance, so as to avoid litigation and aggravation in the future. In fact, right up front in many if not most prenuptial agreements there is a "Statement of Intention" as follows:
It is the intention of the parties in entering into this Agreement that in the event of the termination of the marriage by divorce or death, certain rights shall be fixed in advance. It is their intention to avoid litigation and intrusion into their professional and personal lives and the lives of their families and business associates, which would perhaps otherwise occur if this Agreement had not been entered into.
Unfortunately, unlike in many other states, where prenuptial agreements are ironclad as long as there was full disclosure and the other procedural requirements are met, that has not been the case in New Jersey. The major reason for this is that in New Jersey, aside from setting aside a prenup due to failure to follow the procedural requirements, including full disclosure, agreements can be set aside if they are deemed to be unconscionable, not only when they are entered into, but when they are to be enforced at the time of the divorce. As a result, I have heard judges say that they have never enforced a prenuptial agreement. I have heard other judges give the rationale that because you don’t know what is going to happen in the future, it is unfair to enforce the agreement against a spouse where she/he waives alimony or the equitable distribution rights. That rationale misses the point as that is the entire reason for a prenuptial agreement.
We previously blogged on the Appellate Division’s notable decision in Rogers v. Gordon, which addressed the legal standard applicable to prenuptial agreements signed prior to New Jersey’s enactment of the Uniform Premarital Agreement statute. There, the Appellate Division reversed a trial court Order to the extent that it set aside the entire prenup, since, as…
We have blogged frequently regarding prenuptial agreements. There is also an advice piece on our firm’s web site entitled "Considering a Prenuptial Agreement – Should My Children Have One?" We have also recently been involved in drafting and/or negotiating a number of prenups lately. This has reminded me that one-size does not fit all…
Are prenuptial agreements entered into before the enactment in 1988 of the Uniform Premarital Agreement Act in New Jersey in New Jersey analyzed for enforceability under the standards set forth in the Act? The simple answer is no, since the standard for determining the enforceability was established by earlier cases addresses addressing the issue.
There is a three (3) prong test to determine the enforceability of these pre-Act agreements. To be enforceable: (1) there must be “full disclosure by each party as to his or her financial conditions;” (2) the party sought to be bound by the agreement understood and accepted the terms of the agreement; and (3) the agreement is fair and not unconscionable – it will not "leave a spouse a public charge or close to it, or . . . provide a standard of living far below that which was enjoyed both before and during the marriage."
The party seeking to enforce the prenuptial agreement bears the burden of proving that there was full financial disclosure to the other party, the simplest way of which is to point to schedules attached to the agreement setting out – at least in general terms and with approximate values – the assets of the parties as well as their income over the past few years prior to the marriage. Simply put, a lack of full and complete financial disclosure in the agreement by one party prevents the other party from truly "accepting" its terms. The underlying rationale is that, with full and complete disclosure, the other party might have found the agreement unfair or might not have even gotten married.
What is it about this time of year? I’ve been told that the holidays are the most popular time of year for couples to get engaged. While this a special time for the engaged couple, it is also a time when some couples should consider a prenuptial agreement or premarital contract. A prenuptial agreement is a contract between the engaged couple that addresses equitable distribution, alimony, and other issues that may arise if the couple were to divorce.
A prenuptial agreement may not be for everyone, but in many instances it makes sense. For individuals with substantial assets, a business, family wealth or children from a prior marriage, a prenuptial agreement is usually a good idea. Sometimes people think a prenuptial agreement is a reflection of how an individual feels about the potential outcome of the marriage. But in reality, this is rarely the case. For instance, a family business or assets an individual would like to leave to children from a prior relationship, are assets that need to be protected. Often the parents who own the family business insist that their children have prenuptial agreements to prevent the prospective spouse from ever having a claim to the business.
As seen in Affluent Magazine.
Divorce for those of substantial wealth relative to those of limited wealth is an oxymoron – aspects of divorce between the two classifications are both similar and yet quite different. In final analysis, it is a question of degree – that is, the number of zeros behind the dollar signs. This summary discussion will deal with certain procedures and aspects of divorce which are similar to both. The distinctions lie in the availability and desirability of various procedural vehicles to the two groups.
Privacy and Confidentiality
Nearest to the hearts of you — the rich and famous (next to, of course, your money) — is privacy and confidentiality. None of you in your right mind wants to spread your dirty laundry in public – least of all those of you blessed with substantial wealth. With divorces of such persons being instant grist for media dissemination, generally, it is better for all concerned (especially their children on a whole host of levels) to have disposition of your matter not a matter of public spectacle. All too often, the perceived lesser-advantaged spouse may play the publicity card (or threaten to do so) in order to opt out a financial advantage – or in simple parlance – vie for “hush” money. Perception by the lesser-advantaged spouse that the financially-advantaged spouse will deal with her or him fairly (whatever that may mean) will usually go a long way toward negotiations where calmer minds prevail. Another method of seeking to assure a divorce far from the public eye is for a pre-marital agreement to address issues of confidentiality and mediation and/or arbitration out of the public limelight.
The big news this morning was Madonna and Guy Ritchie’s $92 million divorce settlement. With such a large payout, it makes you wonder whether there was a prenuptial agreement in place (if you type that question into Google, you get differing responses), and if there was, if it was disregarded throughout the marriage.
On December 12, 2008, the Appellate Division released a reported decision in the case of Rogers v. Gordon which addressed the enforceability of a pre-statute prenuptial agreement. To review the full text of the case, click here. The case is interesting because it addresses again the standards to be applied to an agreement signed before the enactment of the Uniform Premarital Agreement Act in NJ.
In this case, the parties entered into a prenuptial agreement as a young couple. The wife was a graduate of the Wharton School of Business and came from a wealthy family. The husband was a high school graduate working for the Postal Service.
The parties married in 1981, had four children and were married for more than 24 years before the wife sought a divorce. During the marriage, the wife went to work for her father’s business, which she eventually purchased from him during the marriage. In 1990, the husband left the Postal Service to work as a machine operator for the business. In 2002, he was promoted to plant supervisor. Not surprisingly, when the divorce commenced, he was demoted to a machine operator again. The trial court made a finding that at the end of the divorce, there was not a "snowball’s chance" that he was going to keep the job given the wife’s intense animosity for him evidence during the trial. In fact, the judge found her to be totally incredible regarding this topic.
At the time of the divorce, the husband’s income was $63,000 – the wife’s was more the $600,000.
The Uniform Premarital Agreement Act was enacted in NJ in 1998 and applies to all agreements entered into after its enactment. As such, because the agreement in this case was entered into prior to the Act, the Court had to apply the case law from prior to the act.
In citing the Marschall case, the court noted that there was a three prong test for enforceability, as follows: 1) there was full financial disclosure; 2) that the party sought to be bound knew and understood the terms and conditions and 3) that the agreement, be fair and not unconscionable, ie. that it not leave a spouse a public charge or close to it, or with a lifestyle far below what was enjoyed before or during the marriage.
The court also cited the D’Onofrio case which said that the alimony provisions in the agreement need not cover all contingencies because the Lepis or change of circumstances standard would apply.
Previously I blogged about child support in cases where the combined net income exceeds the upper levels of the Child Support Guidelines. To see that post, click here.
That issue was prominent in the Appellate Division’s decision in the Strahan case which was released on August 26, 2008 as a reported decision (meaning that the case…